30.11.06

Parménides; el ser-Uno y el alcance de las palabras

Parménides de Elea (540/450 antes de Cristo) fue un importante filósofo griego, uno de los primeros en emplear el pensamiento lógico para acercarse a la verdad, aunque Bertrand Russell califica su lógica como "lógica metafísica"... .Parménides sugiere que para llegar a ella hay que alejarse de la vía de la opinión de los mortales, los cuales "nada saben y andan errantes". Es decir, es menester abandonar lo que los sentidos nos revelan y acudir al pensamiento, pero no cualquier pensamiento, sino aquel que se basa en las premisas correctas, ya que sólo a partir de éstas es posible una aproximación a la verdad. En otras palabras, empleando la deducción podremos por fin asirla de una forma fiable. De esto se desprende que verdad y error son deducidos; el resultado al que lleguemos dependerá del punto de partida que escogamos.

Un aspecto importante de la teoría de Parménides es que proviene de analizar el sentido y significado de ciertos conceptos relacionados lógicamente. Al ser su teoría consecuencia del pensamiento racional, puede ser demostrada por cualquiera que haga valer tal razonamiento. Esto es relevante porque aunque los presocráticos anteriores (Tales, Anaximandro, Anaxímenes, Pitágoras, Heráclito... ) siguieron un procedimiento racional, sus conclusiones se basaban en la experiencia. Parménides, por su parte, establece que el mundo sensitivo es "pura ilusión", que los sentidos nos engañana, y que sólo mediante el razonamiento (lógico) y no la experiencia, es posible llegar a la verdad de las cosas.

Para Parménides, existe una identidad entre ser y pensar, porque no hay conocimiento autónomo al margen del ser). El ser es y no es posible que deje de ser. El ser se define como oposición a "no-ser". El único ser verdadero es el Único, el Uno. Pero este uno no es un Dios como el actual, sino más bien un ente material y extenso, semejante a una esfera. Pareménides enumera las determinaciones conceptuales del contenido del Ser:

- La imposibilidad de que nazca a partir de un "no-ser" u otro "Ser", pues esto es irreconciliable con la disyuntiva "Ser/no-Ser".

- Ese 'nacimiento' o surgimiento implicaría un antes y un después, que son incompatibles con el Ser, ya que este es, sin evolución, historia ni desarrollo. Desde el punto de vista temporal, el Ser no ha surgido, y es indestructible.

- Espacialmente, el Ser es un todo unitario cerrado sobre sí, o sea, no tiene partes, ni huecos. Es, por tanto, indivisible.

- El ser no carece de nada. Al ser un ente inmóvil, no se modifica; si no, sería posible modificarlo para llegar a la perfección. El Ser es, pues, perfecto.

La conclusión a la que llega Parménides es que el Ser es una esfera perfectamente simétrica, homogénea y cerrada sobre sí misma.

Según Parménides, las apariencias engañan. Para llegar a la verdad, necesitamos la revelación de una 'diosa', aunque una diosa no en un sentido mítico. Sus revelaciones son comprensibles racionalmente. Es imprescindible situarse en el marco del saber de la verdad (marco siempre racional y lógico) para entender que las apariencias no son más que eso. El "llegar a ser y perecer, cambiar y variar" todo ello no es más que lo que no es. Y esto es así porque, en efecto, sólo lo que es es Ser, y el Ser se caracteriza, como he comentado, por su inmovilidad.

Esta es, quizá, la idea más crucial que aporta Parménides. Él concibe que un nombre no dice "nada real", o sea, que la palabra se concibe sólo como un nombre que se da a la cosa; la cosa no es su nombre, sino que tan sólo 'recibe' "un" nombre. Tal pensamiento aboca a la idea revolucionaria de disociación entre nombre y cosa, algo que hasta entonces siempre había permanecido inseparable.

La palabra nombra y al nombrar una cosa ésta aparece. Pero si la palabra es solo nombre, entonces no llega a respresentar el verdadero ser de la cosa. De aquí deriva una idea bastante inquietante, y que me gustaría que cerrase este breve esquema sobre Parménides: si los nombres no representan el verdadero ser de las cosas que enuncian, y si la Filosofía no es más que un conjunto de palabras, ¿supone esto que, en el caso de que Parménides estuviese en lo cierto, la corrección y el alcance de la misma debería cuestionarse? En otras palabras, ¿no debería el filósofo guardar silencio ante la verdad, porque la desconoce por completo, habida cuenta que él no es capaz de comunicar el ser de las cosas, sino tan sólo el nombre, el cual quizá emmascare y difume completamente el verdadero significado de todas las cosas en cuestión?

34 comentarios:

Anónimo dijo...

tengo un examen de filosofia en el que me va a entrar un texto para comentarlo..los temas k hemos dado son el paso del mito al logos y el argel para los filosofos..estoy preocupado ya que es el primer examen de filosofia que voy a hacer solo con un texto...Son muchos filosos y me gustaria saber una pajina o alguna opinion donde pueda encontrar un resumen de stos filosofos..gracias..mi msn es mikate_nono@hotmail.com

elHermitaño dijo...

Aquí tienes una bastante completa:

http://www.webdianoia.com/pages/filosofos.htm

Saludos.

Anónimo dijo...

una de las mas grandes confusiones al interpretar a parmenides es esa de que el nombre es una palabra que se da a la cosa, creo que esto lo estas extrayendo de la parte del poema que dice "ser y pensar son lo mismo" tu dices:La palabra nombra y al nombrar una cosa ésta aparece.
parmenides mas bien se refiere con esto al proceso inverso, es decir, no como dijo descartes y como dices tu: la palabra o el pensamiento nombran, luego aquello que nombran es, o aparece, sino por el contrario "todo lo que es, puede ser pensado, es accesible a nuestra razon"
entonces si preguntas por ejemplo: si yo pienso un minotauro, ¿de donde lo saque si en la realidad "no es" parmenides responderia: lo sacaste de dos cosas que si son, un toro, y un humano.
fuera de eso , muy buena aportacion felicidades.

Anónimo dijo...

estoy recen entrando al pensamiento filosófico de las cosas, y realmente me cuesta, claramente... para mi es nuevo.
tengo problemas con un examen, el cul se basara en "el ser". la pregunta central es "qué es mi carrera" (profesión), y entre los postulados que he averigudo el que más se acerca a mi pensar es el de parménides. necesito algo de ayuda...
gracias desde ya. solange.

Anónimo dijo...

Qué buen texto ;) Sobre todo la pregunta final.

¡Vaya bien!

Anónimo dijo...

es una informacion muy completa,tratare de consultar a diario las consultas porq gracias a la informacion q me dieron saqu un 5.0 en filosofia...recomiendo la pag a todos

gracias por su sincera atencion

Anónimo dijo...

tengo un problema ya qu no puedo encontrar unas preguntas si me pudieran ayudar. 1.por que el no-ser es necesario en heraclito y no lo es en parmenides? 2.cual es la teoria que aristoteles presento como solucion al problema de la physis? 3.hay o no hay relacion entre los dos tipos de seres 4.que semejanza hay entre aristoteles y anaxagoras? 5.es o no aceptable la teoria del motor inmovil? espero me las puedan responde inmediatamente ya que las necesito urgentes gracias.

elHermitaño dijo...

Lo siento, anónimo, pero no respuesto cuestiones escolares ni académicas...

Busca cualquier texto mínimamente detallado sobre los presocráticos en particular y la etapa griega en general, y podrás obtener tú mismo las contestaciones... además sabrás mucho más con ello.

Saludos y suerte.

Anónimo dijo...

mlp todos boola de nacoooos jajajaja
mugrosos de la calle pero en fin entre ser y no ser yo soy

Anónimo dijo...

Pues yo sólo les digo.. QUE ME CAGE!! Y huele como a rico :$ ALGUIEN PIDIO CHULO??!

Anónimo dijo...

Pues yo sólo les digo.. QUE ME CAGE!! Y huele como a rico :$ ALGUIEN PIDIO CHULO??!

Anónimo dijo...

quisiera un ejemplo de su afirmacion el ser es uno

Anónimo dijo...

me parece un buen texto y o recomiendo xq me ha ayudado bastante..... :)

Anónimo dijo...

hola , mañana tengo un trimestral de filosofia y me gustaria porfavor si alguien podiera hacerme un resumen de todo el pensamiento de Paramenides , y si tambien sabeis un resumen del pensamiento de plato seria genial . porfavir gracias

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Anónimo dijo...

(Y)

Nícolas dijo...

wow, cuanto spam! Ahora veo por que algunas paginas se reservan el derecho de comentarios a personas registradas.

Anónimo dijo...

parmenides era un gran racionalista!

Anónimo dijo...

me gustan los penes y el de parmenides me vuelve locooooo!!!!!!

Parmenides dijo...

Muy buena información.

Mau96 dijo...

hola, muy buen texto! lastima que existe tanto spam tengo una duda no al nivel académico, pero no comentaste nada en cuanto al ser y su proyección en el ámbito del lenguaje eso es algo esencial en parmenides.
dejo mi correo: lapreavel96@gmail.com

Anónimo dijo...

me podeis dar algun ejemplo que demuestre esto, es para que qude mas claro por favor